Although epileptic seizures can occur randomly and without warning, many people find that their seizures are caused by specific triggers. Many different things can trigger seizures, and each person’s experiences are different. A seizure trigger can be a specific sight or sound, a substance, or a physiologic state (such as having low blood sugar).
Triggers do not cause epilepsy (the underlying causes of epilepsy vary from genetic predisposition to illness and injury) but rather put your brain into a state where it is more likely to have seizure activity. It is important to identify what provokes your seizures and to learn how you can avoid those triggers.
Some of the most common seizure triggers include:
Failure to take antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) as prescribed is one of the most common seizure triggers. AEDs work by preventing seizure activity in the brain, but for the medication to work properly, you must have a high enough level of medication in your bloodstream. Missing a dose or taking the wrong dose of your AED can decrease these levels and trigger seizures.
Stress is another commonly reported trigger. Emotional or psychological stress, including anxiety, anger, depression, or other heightened emotional states, can trigger a seizure in some people. Stress can also contribute to other triggers, such as lack of sleep.
Lack of sleep is one of the top triggers for epileptic seizures in many people. Lack of sleep may be due to a change in schedule, insomnia, medication side effects, poor sleep quality, alcohol consumption, caffeine consumption, and even seizures during sleep.
Alcohol consumption can lead to seizures. Some people with epilepsy can tolerate small amounts of alcohol, but others may have seizures after only one drink. Binge drinking — drinking until you are intoxicated — is a very common trigger. Seizures triggered by alcohol can occur anywhere from one to two hours after drinking and up to 48 hours after stopping heavy drinking. Alcohol can also trigger seizures by changing your blood levels of AEDs and other medications. Finally, alcohol can also negatively affect your sleep, contributing to potential seizures.
Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that can lower your seizure threshold. Coffee, tea, soda, and chocolate can all have high levels of caffeine. When taken in large amounts, caffeine and other stimulants can increase the excitability in the brain. Other recreational and illicit drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines, and MDMA (ecstasy or molly) can induce seizures in people with epilepsy.
Some medications, including over-the-counter options, can change how the body processes your AEDs, leading to seizures. Always check with your health care provider or pharmacist to see if any of your medication or supplements interact with your epilepsy medication.
Flashing lights and certain patterns (such as optical illusions that appear to move) can trigger seizures in some people with photosensitive epilepsy. The frequency of flashing light that triggers seizures varies from person to person. Sometimes, high-contrast geometric patterns can also trigger these types of seizures.
Low blood sugar (also called hypoglycemia) may trigger seizures. Skipping meals or eating at irregular times can cause blood sugar levels to rise and fall.
Some people have seizures at a specific time of day or night, including while they are sleeping.
During a normal menstrual cycle, the body goes through changes in levels of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. Changing hormone levels can be a seizure trigger.
High fever due to infection or other illnesses can cause febrile seizures. Children are more likely to experience febrile seizures than adults. Note that the occurrence of a febrile seizure in a child does not necessarily mean that the child has or will develop epilepsy.
Identifying your specific triggers is the first step in finding ways to avoid triggering seizures. Identifying what induces your seizures can also help you and your neurologist or other health care provider pinpoint your diagnosis and determine the best treatment for your situation.
To figure out what triggers you have, try keeping a journal of your seizures. If you are not able to keep a journal, ask a family member or caregiver to help you track your seizures. Journal entries could include:
Make sure to note if you experience auras before your seizures. Auras can be visual disturbances, odd physical sensations, or emotions that you have before your seizure. In epilepsy, auras can be a type of seizure.
All of the information you gather about your seizures should be shared with your doctor or health care provider to help them determine what care is best for you.
Once you know what triggers your seizures, you may be able to avoid those triggers or lessen their impact on you. Depending on the type of trigger, there are many ways to help prevent seizures.
Take your prescribed AED medication as directed, including taking the right dose at the right time. Do not adjust the dosage or stop taking any antiepileptic medication without consulting your doctor. Take steps to ensure that you take your medication regularly:
Controlling stress can be difficult, but managing stress is important for your health. You cannot always control what causes emotional or psychological stress, but you can identify stressors and work to reduce the negative impact these events can have on your life.
Coping strategies can include anything from meditation to exercise to ensuring your sleeping habits are in good shape. Seeking the help of a psychologist or other counselor is also beneficial for many people who need help dealing with stress and emotional difficulty in life.
Getting a good night’s rest is important for proper brain function in all people and especially for those living with epilepsy. Maintaining good sleep hygiene can include keeping a regular schedule for going to bed and waking up, controlling pain that affects sleep, not reading or watching TV in bed, and avoiding caffeine as well as other stimulants, alcohol, and large meals before bedtime. Like taking your medication, getting the proper amount of sleep at the right time is important for controlling seizures.
Not drinking alcohol is generally the safest approach to avoid alcohol-triggered seizures. However, people who are addicted to alcohol or drink significant amounts of alcohol regularly may be at increased risk of seizures when they stop drinking. If you’re dependent on alcohol, seek medical advice to avoid problems from alcohol withdrawal.
Limiting or eliminating caffeine or nicotine intake can decrease your risk of seizures if those are triggers for you. Other drugs that trigger seizures, including recreational and illicit substances, should be avoided.
If you have photosensitive epilepsy, work with your doctor to determine what specific frequencies of flashing lights or types of patterns cause seizures. Your doctor may use a test called an electroencephalogram (also called an EEG) to make the determination.
If it’s not possible to avoid light triggers, you can sometimes lessen the risk of having a seizure by simply covering one eye.
A healthy diet contributes to a healthy body. Try to eliminate food triggers and eat better. You can prevent low blood sugar by eating regularly and avoiding foods that cause your body to produce more insulin.
Eating a ketogenic diet is another approach that may help control seizures, especially when antiepilepsy medication does not work. Adults and children with epilepsy may benefit from a ketogenic diet or a similarly restricted diet. However, consult your doctor before adopting a ketogenic diet. This is a very restrictive regimen and may not be appropriate for everyone with epilepsy.
Using hormonal treatments, such as certain hormonal birth control methods, can help prevent seizure triggers by altering the normal menstrual cycle. Your doctor may also adjust your AED dose or add AED medications at specific times during your menstrual cycle to help prevent seizures.
It is not possible to simply avoid getting sick, but seeking medical treatment at the first sign of fever, infection, or other illness can help prevent seizures. Always check for medication interactions, including antibiotics.
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